27 Jul 2020
John Lewis leaves behind a powerful legacy of social justice
By Peniel E. Joseph Peniel Joseph is the Barbara Jordan chair in ethics and political values at the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. He also is the founding director of the Center for the Study of Race and Democracy. His latest book is"The Sword and the Shield: The Revolutionary Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr." On July 17, congressman and civil rights leader John Lewis died at 80, on the same day as 95-year-old stalwart C.T. Vivian, Martin Luther King’s favorite preacher. Both leave behind a legacy of social justice activism that played a pivotal role in some of the most resounding victories of the civil rights movement: America’s Second Reconstruction. Lewis’s death comes at a critical moment in U.S. history, amid a moral and political reckoning on black dignity and citizenship that represents nothing less than a Third American Reconstruction. And his life provides lessons for activists today on how to confront racial violence, forge productive alliances and transform American democracy. Born in 1940 in Troy, Ala., to a family of sharecropping farmers, the deeply religious Lewis joined the movement for black dignity and citizenship as a student activist in Nashville. Already enthralled by the dazzling oratory of the young Martin Luther King Jr., Lewis enjoyed an unusual kind of political apprenticeship under the mentorship of an array of movement leaders. He learned the practical application of nonviolent civil disobedience from the Rev. James Lawson and became fast friends with fellow student activists such as Diane Nash. Ella Baker, founder of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced “snick”), played a critical role in convincing students such as Lewis that they — and not just King and older generations of preachers — could play pivotal leadership roles in an unfolding national drama. Lewis’s calm demeanor, personal sincerity and outward humility made him a quiet star among student leaders. He was arrested dozens of times for civil rights activism between 1960 and 1966. In 1961, he joined hundreds of volunteers on Freedom Rides, traveling throughout the Jim Crow South to challenge segregated bus terminals. On May 14, 1961, Lewis experienced a vicious beating at the hands of a white mob as a Freedom Rider in Anniston, Ala. It was the first of many brutal experiences he endured as an activist, and such punishment bolstered Lewis’s political resolve to defeat racial segregation.
14 Jul 2020
Grand General William Tecumseh Sherman depicts the Civil War general on the back of his horse, Ontario—the two led by the goddess, Victory.
THIS DAY IN HISTORY MARCH 27 1865 March 27 Lincoln, Sherman and Grant plan final stages of Civil War On March 27, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln meets with Union generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia, to plot the last stages of the Civil War. Lincoln went to Virginia just as Grant was preparing to attack Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s lines around Petersburg and Richmond, an assault that promised to end the siege that had dragged on for 10 months. Meanwhile, Sherman’s force was steamrolling northward through the Carolinas. The three architects of Union victory convened for the first time as a group—Lincoln and Sherman had never met—at Grant’s City Point headquarters at the general-in-chief’s request. As part of the trip, Lincoln went to the Petersburg lines and witnessed a Union bombardment and a small skirmish. Prior to meeting with his generals, the president also reviewed troops and visited wounded soldiers. Once he sat down with Grant and Sherman, Lincoln expressed concern that Lee might escape Petersburg and flee to North Carolina, where he could join forces with Joseph Johnston to forge a new Confederate army that could continue the war for months. Grant and Sherman assured the president the end was in sight. Lincoln emphasized to his generals that any surrender terms must preserve the Union war aims of emancipation and a pledge of equality for the freed slaves. After meeting with Admiral David Dixon Porter on March 28, the president and his two generals went their separate ways. Less than four weeks later, Grant and Sherman had secured the surrender of the Confederacy. ESTE DÍA EN LA HISTORIA 27 DE MARZO 1865 27 de marzo Lincoln, Sherman y Grant planean las etapas finales de la Guerra Civil El 27 de marzo de 1865, el presidente Abraham Lincoln se reúne con los generales de la Unión Ulysses S. Grant y William T. Sherman en City Point, Virginia, para planear las últimas etapas de la Guerra Civil. Lincoln fue a Virginia justo cuando Grant se estaba preparando para atacar las líneas del general confederado Robert E. Lee alrededor de Petersburg y Richmond, un asalto que prometió poner fin al asedio que se había prolongado durante 10 meses. Mientras tanto, la fuerza de Sherman avanzaba hacia el norte a través de las Carolinas. Los tres arquitectos de la victoria de la Unión se reunieron por primera vez en grupo (Lincoln y Sherman nunca se habían conocido) en la sede de Grant en City Point a pedido del general en jefe. Como parte del viaje, Lincoln fue a las líneas de Petersburgo y fue testigo de un bombardeo de la Unión y una pequeña escaramuza. Antes de reunirse con sus generales, el presidente también revisó las tropas y visitó a los soldados heridos. Una vez que se sentó con Grant y Sherman, Lincoln expresó su preocupación de que Lee pudiera escapar de Petersburg y huir a Carolina del Norte, donde podría unir fuerzas con Joseph Johnston para forjar un nuevo ejército confederado que pudiera continuar la guerra durante meses. Grant y Sherman le aseguraron al presidente que el final estaba a la vista. Lincoln enfatizó a sus generales que cualquier término de rendición debe preservar los objetivos de guerra de la Unión de emancipación y una promesa de igualdad para los esclavos liberados. Después de reunirse con el almirante David Dixon Porter el 28 de marzo, el presidente y sus dos generales se separaron. Menos de cuatro semanas después, Grant y Sherman habían asegurado la rendición de la Confederación.
14 Jul 2020
William Tecumseh Sherman depicts the Civil War general on the back of his horse, Ontario—the two led by the goddess, Victory.
14 Jul 2020
The Wedding in the- The Crossroads of the World' and 'The Great White Way'