Martin M. Miles' photos

Aachen - Elisenbrunnen

01 May 2021 2 14
Aachen, the westernmost city in Germany. Due to its numerous thermal springs, Aachen has been a bathing and spa town since ancient times. Even the Romans used the hot springs to run spas. Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons between the Rhineland and northern France. Charlemagne´s coronation as king of the Franks took place here in 768. Aachen became the preferred Imperial residence of Emperor Charlemagne. He spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814. At the end of the 17th century, Aachen became a "fashionable spa" frequented by crowned heads and other celebrities. In 1819, the Aachen City Council decided to build a representative building in which the thermal water from the "Kaiserquelle" (imperial spring) could be dispensed to spa guests. Financial shortages of the city slowed down the building process, so the building, named "Elisenbrunnen" after the daughter of Bavarian King Maximilian I, was finally completed in 1828. The celebrities who drank the water of the Kaiserquelle as spa guests are commemorated by marble plaques in the hall, which were installed in 1883. Among them are Peter the Great, Frederick the Great, Giacomo Casanova, Count Grigory Orlov and George Frederick Handel. During World War II, the Elisenbrunnen was almost completely destroyed by bombing was faithfully reconstructed in the early 1950s following the plans of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who was one of the original architects.

Aachen - St. Adalbert

01 May 2021 1 8
Aachen, the westernmost city in Germany, developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Emperor Charlemagne of the Frankish Empire. From 936 to 1531 Aachen was the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons between the Rhineland and northern France. Charlemagne´s coronation as king of the Franks took place here in 768. He spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814. Aachen became the focus of his court and the political centre of his empire. The former collegiate church of St. Adalbert was consecrated in 1005. It is thus the second oldest church in the city after Aachen Cathedral. Emperor Otto III had been a friend of Adalbert of Prague. Subsequent to the canonization of Bishop Adalbert Otto III distributed Adalbert`s relics to churches in his empire and ordered the construction of a monastery church for the Imperial City of Aachen, which he wanted to consecrate to St. Adalbert as well as to St. Hermes. The church was located one kilometre east of the Aachen Palatinate along the old Roman road to Trier. Otto´s successor Henry II had the church completed and in 1005 it was consecrated to St. Hermes and St. Adalbert. The emperor appointed clergymen to form the collegiate convent and declared the church a legally free imperial foundation. After the construction of the outer city wall at the end of the 13th-century, the three-nave Romanesque pillar basilica belonged to the imperial city territory. During the French occupation, the monastery was dissolved although the church remained as a parish church. For this purpose, the church was extensively restructured for the first time in 1809. After the population had increased significantly, another rebuilding and partially new construction with the extension to a five-nave church took place in 1875/76. During the air raids in 1943, the church was set on fire and burned out almost completely. However, it was rebuilt and reopened in October 1949. - Seen to the right is the facade of "Aquis Plaza", a new mall.

Aachen - St. Folian

01 May 2021 7
From 936 to 1531, the Aachen chapel was the church of coronation for 30 German kings and 12 queens. In 792 Charlemagne (aka "Charles the Great", "Karl der Grosse") began the construction of a palace here and part of the whole structure was the "Palatine Chapel". Pope Leo III consecrated the chappel in 805. Here were the corridors of power around 800. The carolingian octogon is the middle part of the building. A gothic choir on the left was added later and so it beacem the "Aachen Cathedral". Parts of the westwork date back to the carolingian structure. The carolingian octogon was planned by the Odo of Metz, who obviously had seen Byzantine churches. After the erection of the Aachen Cathedral, the nobility and the canons celebrated their services in this place of worship, while the ordinary citizen had to use other churches. For this reason, a church dedicated to St. Foillan, an early Iro-Scottish missionary (brother of Saints Ultan and Fursa), was built around 1180. After the cathedral was enlarged by an extension of the aisle in 1414, the citizens also strove for a new building of their church, which had become too small meanwhile. A three-nave Gothic building was erected and consecrated in 1482. The expansion of the cathedral brought the two buildings close together and they remained separated only by a narrow alley. Of that church only remains of the choir, parts of the facade and a few other areas have been preserved. The remaining parts of the facade and the tower date from 1888 or are more recent. Most damages were caused by a bombing raid in 1944 when the church was almost completely destroyed. The church got rebuilt between 1956 and 1958. This triumphal cross found its place behind bars on the outside facade.

Aachen - Hof

01 May 2021 1 6
Aachen, the westernmost city in Germany, developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Emperor Charlemagne of the Frankish Empire. From 936 to 1531 Aachen was the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons between the Rhineland and northern France. Charlemagne´s coronation as king of the Franks took place here in 768. He spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814. Aachen became the focus of his court and the political centre of his empire. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks under Lothair raided Aachen in 978. The palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176. Later Aachen remained a city of regional importance, due to its proximity to Flanders and achieved a modest position in the trade in woollen cloths, favoured by imperial privilege. The "Hof" square has a couple of small cafés and restaurants (all closed during the lockdown). One of them is "Masuto" on the ground floor of this building, erected around 1900. The facade mingles neo-Baroque and Art Deco/Jugendstil elements.

Aachen - Hof

01 May 2021 2 11
Aachen, the westernmost city in Germany, developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Emperor Charlemagne of the Frankish Empire. From 936 to 1531 Aachen was the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons between the Rhineland and northern France. Charlemagne´s coronation as king of the Franks took place here in 768. He spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814. Aachen became the focus of his court and the political centre of his empire. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks under Lothair raided Aachen in 978. The palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176. Later Aachen remained a city of regional importance, due to its proximity to Flanders and achieved a modest position in the trade in woollen cloths, favoured by imperial privilege. The "Hof" square, with its small cafés and restaurants (all closed during the lockdown), also contains this portico, a vestige of Aachen's Roman past. This was once a Roman bathing and temple district. Actually, this is a copy, as the original Roman arches are in the federal state museum in Bonn.

Aachen - Cathedral

01 May 2021 4 11
This "Imperial Cathedral" was known as the "Royal Church of St. Mary at Aachen" during the Middle Ages. From 936 to 1531, the Aachen chapel was the church of coronation for 30 German kings and 12 queens. In 792 Charlemagne (aka "Charles the Great", "Karl der Grosse") began the construction of a palace here and part of the whole structure was this "Palatine Chapel". Pope Leo III consecrated the chappel in 805. Here were the corridors of power around 800. The carolingian octogon is the middle part of the building. A gothic choir on the left was added later. Parts of the westwork date back to the carolingian structure. The carolingian octogon, having a baroque roof now, was planned by the Odo of Metz, who obviously had seen Byzantine churches. For sure he had had seen the Basilica of San Vitale of Ravenna, as San Vitale seems to be a model of this chapel. I have uploaded already many photos taken during previous visits of the "Imerial Cathedral", so this time, this door-knocker is the only one.

Aachen - St. Michael

01 May 2021 3 2 14
Aachen, the westernmost city in Germany, developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Emperor Charlemagne of the Frankish Empire. From 936 to 1531 Aachen was the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons between the Rhineland and northern France. Charlemagne´s coronation as king of the Franks took place here in 768. He spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814. Aachen became the focus of his court and the political centre of his empire. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks under Lothair raided Aachen in 978. The palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176. Later Aachen remained a city of regional importance, due to its proximity to Flanders and achieved a modest position in the trade in woollen cloths, favoured by imperial privilege. In 1579 the first Jesuits came to Aachen. In 1600 the council of the town took the decision to settle Jesuits in Aachen. The Jesuits´church was built between 1617 and 1628, but the facade was unfinished until 1861. With the dissolution of the Jesuit Order in 1773, the church was closed and converted into a granary during the French period, later it was used as a parish church. In 1987 the Greek Orthodox community of St. Dimitrios purchased the building to held Orthodox services. Here St. Michael is seen in the facade of the St. Leonard School opposite the church. As the Jesuits once were responsible for the educational system the neighbourhood is not accidentally.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 2 2 9
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. The cloister gave access to the "Dom" and the main building of the canons in the 13th centurSoest - Patrokli Cathedral Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. The cloister gave access to the "Dom" and the main building of the canons in the 13th century. A "Latin School" existed here as early as 1114.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 2 11
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. This is a small detail of a copy of a Romanesque stained glass window, depicting the resurrection. The original window, dated 1160/1166, is safeguarded in the museum.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 5 1 16
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. This is a small detail of a copy of a Romanesque stained glass window. The original window, dated 1160/1166, is safeguarded in the museum. It depicts the resurrection. The myrrhbearers are arriving and the soldiers are sleeping.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 3 11
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. The "Mondsichel Madonna" ("Woman of the Apocalypse") was created in the first half of the 15th century. This type is an icon, that became popular from 1400 on. It goes back to a description in Chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation. There is ".. a woman clothed with the sun and the moon under her feet .."

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 3 2 16
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. The romanesque crypt, destroyed (blown up!) after the secularisation (to have an even floor in the nave), was reconstructed after WWII, when the church got "rebuilt", after severe damages due to bombs, that had hit the church.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 6 1 23
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The original building was completed before 1000. In the course of a further building phase the vaulted aisles were erected. At the same time, the transepts were expanded, the westwerk was rebuilt and an attached cloister were added to the south transept. The altar was consecrated in 1118. Later the nave and the transepts were vaulted and the whole interior received painted decoration. This phase of construction ended with the reconsecration of the church by Cologne Archbishop Rainald of Dassel in 1166. The vault were badly damaged in an air raid in 1944. The apse was destroyed in air raids in March 1945. Reconstruction began in 1949.

Soest - Patrokli Cathedral

01 Apr 2021 2 12
Soest was one of the major cities in Westphalia during the 11th./12th century, having a population of around 10.000. Founded (like Erwitte and Paderborn to the east) on the ancient "Hellweg" (=Saltway), Soest played a major role within the Hanseatic League. Once it was even the capital of Westphalia - and (1531) a centre of Protestant Reformation in the area. The town centre has more than 600 listed buildings and a couple of old churches. The "Patrokli Dom" was the church of the canonical foundation, which existed from the 10th century until its abolition in 1812. Since 1823 the church has been the parish church of the St. Patrokli parish. The triumphal cross hangs down over the altar, which contains the relics of Saint Patroclus, which were transferred from Troyes to Soest in 964 by Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne. The cross is 2.12 m high and dates from around 1400. The images on the square ends of the cross beams on the front represent evangelists. - PiP.

Horn - Evangelical Reformed Church

01 Apr 2021 1 15
Horn (since 1970 part of Horn-Bad Meinberg) was founded by Bernhard III, Edler Herr zur Lippe, after 1230. It was first mentioned in 1248. Horn was located on the old road, that run from Cologne to Hamlin - and today is known as "Bundesstrasse 1" (B1). Horn got strongly fortified with a surrounding wall and a moat. The castle, was part of this fortification, though it was later used as a kind of retirement home by several widows of the House of Lippe. Armed conflicts over the city took place in particular during the Soest feud (1444–1449) and during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed in a fire, about 60 houses burnt down including the town hall. The exact age of the church is unknown. It is certain, however, is that a single-nave Romanesque church already existed when the city was founded around 1245. The lower part of the tower is dated to before 1200, the sound arcades date from the early 13th century. The rest of the church was extended around 1480 on the old foundations to a three-aisled, two-bay hall church in the Gothic style. The church was used by Catholics and later by Lutherans, but in 1605 Simon VI, Count of Lippe, adopted the Reformed Faith. He promoted its spreading within his county, using his monarchic privilege of "cuius regio, eius religion". So his faith mostly superseded the previously dominant Lutheran faith. The epitaph of Cord von Mengersen, who died 8. December 1562 (see the top line).

Horn - Evangelical Reformed Church

01 Apr 2021 1 17
Horn (since 1970 part of Horn-Bad Meinberg) was founded by Bernhard III, Edler Herr zur Lippe, after 1230. It was first mentioned in 1248. Horn was located on the old road, that run from Cologne to Hamlin - and today is known as "Bundesstrasse 1" (B1). Horn got strongly fortified with a surrounding wall and a moat. The castle, was part of this fortification, though it was later used as a kind of retirement home by several widows of the House of Lippe. Armed conflicts over the city took place in particular during the Soest feud (1444–1449) and during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed in a fire, about 60 houses burnt down including the town hall. The exact age of the church is unknown. It is certain, however, is that a single-nave Romanesque church already existed when the city was founded around 1245. The lower part of the tower is dated to before 1200, the sound arcades date from the early 13th century. The rest of the church was extended around 1480 on the old foundations to a three-aisled, two-bay hall church in the Gothic style. The church was used by Catholics and later by Lutherans, but in 1605 Simon VI, Count of Lippe, adopted the Reformed Faith. He promoted its spreading within his county, using his monarchic privilege of "cuius regio, eius religion". So his faith mostly superseded the previously dominant Lutheran faith. While traditionally baptismal fonts are located in the west of a church building, it is here next to the choir stalls near the main altar.

Horn - Evangelical Reformed Church

01 Apr 2021 6 22
Horn (since 1970 part of Horn-Bad Meinberg) was founded by Bernhard III, Edler Herr zur Lippe, after 1230. It was first mentioned in 1248. Horn was located on the old road, that run from Cologne to Hamlin - and today is known as "Bundesstrasse 1" (B1). Horn got strongly fortified with a surrounding wall and a moat. The castle, was part of this fortification, though it was later used as a kind of retirement home by several widows of the House of Lippe. Armed conflicts over the city took place in particular during the Soest feud (1444–1449) and during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed in a fire, about 60 houses burnt down including the town hall. The exact age of the church is unknown. It is certain, however, is that a single-nave Romanesque church already existed when the city was founded around 1245. The lower part of the tower is dated to before 1200, the sound arcades date from the early 13th century. The rest of the church was extended around 1480 on the old foundations to a three-aisled, two-bay hall church in the Gothic style. The church was used by Catholics and later by Lutherans, but in 1605 Simon VI, Count of Lippe, adopted the Reformed Faith. He promoted its spreading within his county, using his monarchic privilege of "cuius regio, eius religion". So his faith mostly superseded the previously dominant Lutheran faith.

Horn - Evangelical Reformed Church

01 Apr 2021 2 20
Horn (since 1970 part of Horn-Bad Meinberg) was founded by Bernhard III, Edler Herr zur Lippe, after 1230. It was first mentioned in 1248. Horn was located on the old road, that runs from Cologne to Hamlin - and today is known as "Bundesstrasse 1" (B1). Horn got strongly fortified with a surrounding wall and a moat. The castle, was part of this fortification, though it was later used as a kind of retirement home by several widows of the House of Lippe. Armed conflicts over the city took place in particular during the Soest feud (1444–1449) and during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed in a fire, about 60 houses burnt down including the town hall. The exact age of the church is unknown. It is certain, however, is that a single-nave Romanesque church already existed when the city was founded around 1245. The lower part of the tower is dated to before 1200, the sound arcades date from the early 13th century. The rest of the church was extended around 1480 on the old foundations to a three-aisled, two-bay hall church in the Gothic style. The church was used by Catholics and later by Lutherans, but in 1605 Simon VI, Count of Lippe, adopted the Reformed Faith. He promoted its spreading within his county, using his monarchic privilege of "cuius regio, eius religion". So his faith mostly superseded the previously dominant Lutheran faith.

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