Verisimo

Verisimo

Posted on 11/29/2007


Photo taken on November 22, 2007



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Leonor de Toledo
Bronzino
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Manierismo


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Bronzino's Maniera

Bronzino's Maniera
♫♪♫Nino Rota - Romeo y Julieta ♫♪♫

Bronzino

Agnolo Tori o Angelo di Cosimo di Mariano o Agnolo Bronzino, más conocido como Bronzino, El Bronzino o Il Bronzino (Ponticelli de Florencia, 17 de noviembre de 1503 – Florencia, 23 de noviembre de 1572). Pintor italiano predominantemente áulico y uno de los más destacados representantes del manierismo.

Se tiene poca información fidedigna en relación a su infancia, precisamente esa falta de datos hace suponer como muy probable que naciera en el seno de una familia muy humilde, esto explica la dificultad para establecer su verdadero apellido, él mismo adoptó luego como apellido el apodo que se le diera.

En cuanto a su sobrenombre Bronzino, en italiano significa broncineo, y quizás derive de su carácter cerrado «como el de una estatua»[sin referencias].

Su primer maestro fue el pintor florentino Raffaellino del Garbo. Hacia 1515 ingresó en el taller (o bottega) de Jacopo Carucci más conocido como Pontormo quien le hizo su hijo adoptivo y de este modo tuvo un rol fundamental en la carrera artística de El Bronzino.

Ambos realizaron las decoraciones de la capilla Capponi en la iglesia de Santa Felicita en Florencia.

En 1530 era ya un pintor afirmado y merecidamente reconocido razón por la cual la familia Della Rovere le invitó a trabajar en Pesaro, donde permaneció un par de años. En dicha ciudad trabajó en la decoración de la llamada villa Imperial junto a Battista Dossi, Francesco Menzocchi, Raffaellino del Colle, Gerolamo Genga y Dosso Dossi, bajo el mecenazgo de Francesco Maria I Della Rovere.

Cuando Cosimo I de' Medici deviene señor condottiero de Florencia decide apelar a los principales pintores de la época, entre estos se encuentra El Bronzino quien trabajó para los Medici a partir de 1539. Tras la realización de un primer cuadro se transformó en el pintor dilecto del citado Cosme.

Buscando un ayudante para realizar arazzi, Bronzino se dirigió a Roma en 1548, empleando allí a Raffaello dal Colle.

Al morir su maestro Pontormo en 1556, El Bronzino se dedica a culminar los frescos de la gran iglesia florentina de San Lorenzo.

En 1563 es uno de los miembros fundadores de la Accademia del Disegno y como representante de la misma participa de las exequias de Miguel Ángel en 1564.

El Bronzino fallece el 23 de noviembre de 1572 en la casa de su alumno preferido: Alessandro Allori discípulo que en homenaje a su maestro —y quizás tío— se hizo llamar Alessandro Bronzino.

Obras

La mayor parte de sus pinturas son retratos de grandes literatos y de integrantes de la familia de los Médicis o de allegados a ésta, por ejemplo Leonor de Toledo hija del virrey de Nápoles y enlazada matrimonialmente con los Médicis.

Cuando el citado mecenas Cosme I de Médicis fundó una fábrica de arazzi en Florencia, Bronzino se dedicó al diseño de magníficos arazzi figurando en ellos principalmente temáticas mitológicas y alegóricas.
Alegoría del triunfo de Venus
Alegoría del triunfo de Venus

La serie de tales obras consta de veinte arazzi, dieciséis diseñados por Bronzino, tres por Pontormo y uno por Francesco Salviati. Las obras se encuentran actualmente en el museo florentino del Palazzo Vecchio.

Además de los retratos, su otra temática preferida fue la pintura religiosa como las realizadas par la palas de altar y frescos de varias iglesias florentinas.

Entre sus obras más importantes se cuentan:

* Retrato de Lucrezia Panciatichi (h. 1540)
* El pasaje del Mar Rojo (1541–1542)
* Retrato de Don García de Medicis (Museo del Prado)
* Leonor de Toledo y su hijo (h. 1545)
* Alegoría del triunfo de Venus, también llamado Alegoría de Venus y Cupido; y Venus, Cupido, la Locura y el Tiempo, 1540-1545, óleo sobre tabla, 146 x 116 cm, National Gallery de Londres
* Descendimiento de Cristo (h. 1545)
* Resurrección de Cristo (1545–46)
* "San Sebastián" (Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza)
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Bronzino
Agnolo di Cosimo (November 17, 1503 – November 23, 1572), usually known as Il Bronzino, or Agnolo Bronzino (mistaken attempts also have been made in the past to assert his name was Agnolo Tori and even Angelo (Agnolo) Allori), was an Italian Mannerist painter from Florence. The origin of his nickname, Bronzino is unknown, but could derive from his dark complexion, or from that he gave many of his portrait subjects. It has been claimed by some that he had dark skin as a symptom of Addison's disease, a condition which affects the adrenal glands and often causes excessive pigmentation of the skin.



Life

Bronzino was born in Florence. According to his friend Vasari, he was a pupil first of Raffaellino del Garbo, and then of Pontormo, who was the main influence on his style and to whom he was devoted. Pontormo introduced his portrait as a child into one of his series on Joseph in Egypt in the National Gallery, London.

Portraits

Bronzino first received Medici patronage in 1539, when he was one of the many artists chosen to execute the elaborate decorations for the wedding of Cosimo I de' Medici to Eleonora di Toledo, the daughter of the Viceroy of Naples. It was not long before he became, and remained for most of his career, the official court painter of the Duke and his court. His portrait figures, static, elegant, and stylish, exemplars of unemotional haughtiness and assurance, influenced the course of European court portraiture for a century. These also exist in many workshop versions and copies. Bronzino also painted idealized portraits of the poets Dante and Petrarch. He took a prominent part in the activities of the Florentine Accademia del Disegno, of which he was a founding member in 1563. The painter Alessandro Allori was his favourite pupil, and Bronzino was living in the Allori family house at the time of his death in Florence in 1572 (Alessandro was also the father of Cristofano Allori).[1] He rarely left Florence.


His famous series of aloof portraits of Cosimo and Eleonora, and figures of their court such as Bartolomeo Panciatichi and his wife Lucrezia, are his best known works. His portrait of Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune is less typical but also very successful.

Bronzino was also a poet, and his most personal portraits are perhaps those of other literary figures such as Laura Battiferri, wife of sculptor/architect Bartolommeo Ammanati, (Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, c. 1560).

Religious subjects

In 1540/41, Bronzino began work on the fresco decoration of the Chapel of Eleanora da Toledo in the Palazzo Vecchio. Elegant and classicizing, but quite mannered, these religious works are excellent illustrations of the mid-16th-century aesthetics of the Florentine court: highly-stylized and non-personal or emotive. The Passage of the Red Sea is typical of Bronzino's approach at this time, though it should not be claimed that Bronzino or the court was lacking in religious fervor on the basis of the preferred court fashion.

During two years spent in Rome (1546–1548) he carried out a series of religious paintings such as Resurrection of the Virgin Mary (1552), which appear to be suffering from the effects of a moral crisis: this was, after all, the period in which the atmosphere of Counter-Reformation austerity held full sway.

His religious paintings sometimes resulted in elegant posturing, as in The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1569), in which almost every one of the extraordinarily contorted poses can be traced back to Raphael or to Michelangelo, whom Bronzino idolized. When attempting to display strong emotion, his Mannerism becomes unconvincing, verging on Academic art. Bronzino's skill with the nude was better deployed in the celebrated Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, which conveys strong feelings of eroticism under the pretext of a moralizing allegory. His other major works include frescoes for the chapel, and the design of a series of tapestries on The Story of Joseph, for the Palazzo Vecchio.

Most of Bronzino's works are in Florence but other examples can be found in the National Gallery, London, and elsewhere.

Use in popular culture

* Terry Gilliam from British comedy group Monty Python famously used Cupid's right foot from Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time for crushing down the titles on Monty Python's Flying Circus.
* American photographer David LaChapelle created his own version of the painting Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time.

Source/Fuente : Wikipedia

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