El movimiento punk es la actividad cultural y social que rodea a la música punk y los aficionados a ella. El punk apareció como subgénero musical del rock en los años setenta, y desde entonces le han acompañado corrientes artísticas, literarias, ideológicas y políticas, y formas de intercambio y relaciones sociales derivadas de ellas. A veces se utiliza la palabra "punk" de forma genérica para referirse a estas formas de cultura: el punk acoge un amplio abanico de movimientos musicales, artísticos, juveniles, vecinales, sociopolíticos, así como de ambientes, redes y mecanismos de inspiración e intercambio de ideas e información.Main article: History of the punk subculture

The punk subculture emerged in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia in the mid-to-late-1970s, and has since undergone several developments.[2][3][4][5][6][7][1] The punk subculture originated from a number of antecedents and influences. Various philosophical and artistic movements influenced and preceded to the punk movement. In particular, several strains of modern art anticipated and affected punk. Various writers, books, and literary movements were important to the formation of the punk aesthetic. Punk rock has a variety of musical origins in the rock and roll genre. Previous youth subcultures also had major influences on punk.

The earliest form of punk, retroactively named protopunk, arose in the north-eastern United States in the early-to-mid-1970s. The first ongoing music scene that was assigned the punk label appeared in New York City between 1974 and 1976. Around that same time, a punk scene developed in London. Soon after, Los Angeles became home to the third major punk scene. These three cities formed the backbone of the burgeoning movement, but there were also other scenes in cities such as Brisbane, and Boston.

Starting in 1977, the subculture diversified, and factions such as 2 tone and anarcho-punk came into their own. As the punk movement began to lose steam, post-punk, New Wave, and No Wave gained the media's attention. Sometime around the early 1980s, punk underwent a renaissance in the form of the hardcore punk subculture. Hardcore proved fertile in much the same way as the original punk subculture, producing several new groups. These subcultures stand alongside the older subcultures under the punk banner.

The underground punk movement in the United States in the 1980s produced scenes that either evolved from punk or claimed to apply its spirit and DIY ethics to a completely different music, securing punk's legacy in the alternative rock and indie scenes. The commercial success of alternative rock gave way to another style that the mainstream media dubbed pop punk. A new movement in America became visible in the early and mid-1990s, claiming to be a revival of punk.

The Sex Pistols (die bei weitem bekannteste Punkband),

Schon damals teilte sich die Punk-Bewegung in viele Richtungen wie Anarcho-Punk, Oi!/Streetpunk, Ska-Punk, Fun-Punk und Skatepunk. Parallel zum Entstehen des Punks entwickelte sich der ebenso musikalisch radikale Industrial mit Vorreitern wie Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire und SPK.


Subcultures within punk

The punk subculture is made up of a diverse assortment of subgroups that distinguish themselves from one another through different attitudes, music, and clothing styles. Some of these groups are antagonistic towards one another, and there is widespread disagreement within punk whether or not some are even part of the larger subculture. An individual punk may identify with several of these factions, or none in particular.

Subculture Origins Music Major bands Ideology & Lyrics Fashion
Anarcho-punk 1970s and 1980s United Kingdom Range of punk music styles MDC,Crass, Conflict, Flux of Pink Indians, Subhumans Anarchism and other political and social themes Anarchist symbolism, often all-black militaristic dress
Art punk Mid-1970s New York City Protopunk, art rock Television, Wire, Suicide Bohemianism, abstract lyrics  
Celtic punk 1970s Ireland and United Kingdom Punk rock, Celtic music, Oi!, Celtic rock Dropkick Murphys, Flogging Molly, The Real Mckenzies Scottish, Irish or Welsh themes, various spiritual or social issues, working class pride Includes a variety of punk and skinhead styles, as well as influences from Celtic heritage
Christian punk Early 1980s American hardcore Hardcore punk and a range of other punk styles Headnoise, The Crucified, Crashdog, Flatfoot 56 Various spiritual, political and social themes. Some profess as Christian Anarchists Variety of punk styles, such as Anarcho/Crust punk, DIY, anti-fashion, and hardcore punk
Crack Rock Steady 1990s-2000s Ska-core Fast ska-influenced hardcore punk Choking Victim, Leftover Crack, Morning Glory Nihilism, Anti-authoritarianism  
Crust punk Late 1980s to early 1990s anarcho-punk Similar to grindcore; uses elements of d-beat; fuses anarcho-punk, heavy metal, hardcore Amebix, Doom, Nausea, Antisect Anarchism Anarchist symbolism, DIY clothing
Deathrock Late 1970s California punk Punk and post-punk-influenced west coast United States Goth rock Christian Death, 45 Grave, Cinema Strange Horror film themes, Nihilism Black clothing, torn fishnets, makeup, deathhawks, Doc Martins
Folk punk Late 1970s United Kingdom Fuses folk music and punk rock The Pogues, Attila the Stockbroker, Billy Bragg, Defiance, Ohio, The Levellers Various themes, including leftist ideologies Various styles, usually plain
Glam punk Early 1970s north-eastern United States Protopunk, glam rock New York Dolls, Hanoi Rocks, D Generation Aestheticism, dandyism, narcissism, recreational drug use Cross-dressing, cosmetics, fetish fashion
Hardcore punk Early 1980s North America and United Kingdom Faster and heavier version of punk rock Bad Brains, Black Flag,DOA Minor Threat, Dead Kennedys Various themes, sometimes political Plain working class clothing, anti-fashion, athletic wear; usually short hair (with the exception of dreadlocks).
Horror punk Early 1980s California Punk or hardcore punk with elements of doo-wop or rockabilly The Misfits, The Undead, Gotham Road Horror film and science fiction themes Black clothing, corpse paint, devilock
Nazi punk & Rock Against Communism Late 1970s punk, 1980s Oi! and hardcore Typical punk, Oi!, hardcore and heavy metal music styles Skrewdriver, Skullhead, Landser, RaHoWa neo-Nazism, racism, white nationalism Nazi symbolism with typical punk, skinhead, hardcore and metal fashions
Oi! Pub rock, glam rock, football chants, late 1970s punk rock Typical rock band instrumentation, sing-along choruses, simple melodies Cock Sparrer, Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, The 4-Skins, The Blood, Sham 69. Patriotism, populism, socialism, football hooliganism and other working class themes. Oi! bands that play humorous songs have been called punk pathetique.[10] Includes styles associated with 1980s UK punks and skinheads, such as: Dr. Martens, flat caps, Levi' jeans, rocker jacket or flight jacket
Pop punk Late 1970s United Kingdom and United States Punk rock fused with various styles of pop music Ramones, The Buzzcocks, Green Day, Blink-182, The Offspring, Sum 41, Good Charlotte Off-color and toilet humour, relationships Rocker jackets, Chuck Taylor All-Stars, trucker hats, neckties, elements of other punk fashions
Queercore Mid 1980s American hardcore punk Range of punk styles God Is My Co-Pilot, The Dicks, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, Limp Wrist, Homosexuality, gay rights, marginalized sexuality Similar to hardcore styles
Riot grrrl Early 1990s Seattle, Olympia, and Washington, D.C. hardcore punk Alternative rock-influenced punk Bratmobile, Bikini Kill, Free Kitten, The Donnas Feminism, female empowerment, and some themes similar to queercore Kinderwhore
Scum punk 1990s American hardcore punk and shock rock artists like Alice Cooper Intentionally abrasive and loud, with poor musicianship GG Allin, The Scumfucs, Antiseen Transgressive art, sexual and violent lyrics with taboo subjects  
Ska punk 1980s North America and United Kingdom Typical punk instrumentation plus brass instruments and other wind instruments; influenced by 2 Tone, hardcore punk, pop punk and reggae rock Mighty Mighty Bosstones, Operation Ivy, Rancid, Goldfinger, Less Than Jake,Reel Big Fish Anti-racism, unity, light personal themes Styles influenced by the 2 Tone, pop punk and hardcore punk scenes
Skate punk Early 1980s California skateboarding and surfing scenes Similar to hardcore punk, sometimes with elements of ska punk and pop punk JFA, Big Boys, Suicidal Tendencies, NOFX, Ill Repute, The Offspring Anti-authoritarianism, extreme sports Sagging clothes, skate shoes, trucker hats
Straight Edge 1980s Washington, D.C. hardcore punk Hardcore, heavy metal and metalcore Minor Threat, Youth of Today, Slapshot, Earth Crisis Abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, recreational drug use, and promiscuity Athletic apparel, camouflage shorts, black X drawn on hand
Streetpunk & UK82 1980s United Kingdom Elements of Oi! and hardcore; fast, angry and rough The Exploited, Charged GBH, The Virus, Clit 45 Working class life, inner-city themes; sometimes political Includes styles associated with the 1980s UK punks and punk-skinheads
Suicidal Early 1980s Venice Beach, California Skate punk and crossover thrash Suicidal Tendencies, No Mercy, Excel Skateboarding, gangs, leftist/anarchist politics Cholo-like dress, e.g. bandanas, flannel shirts, Baseball caps with the bill bent upward.


[edit] Subcultures influenced by punk

Several subcultures started out closely related to the punk subculture but broke away, becoming distinct and separate cultures. Some of these groups have retained friendly and cooperative relations with punks, but others have developed a feeling of mutual animosity.

Subculture Origins Music Major bands Ideology & Lyrics Fashion
2 Tone 1970s UK punk, ska, rocksteady, reggae, pop Typical punk instrumentation plus brass instruments and other wind instruments The Specials, The Selecter, The Beat, Madness Escapism (dancing), anti-racism, working class populism Suits, Trilby hats, & other skinhead/rude boy/mod fashion
Emo Late 1980s Washington, D.C. hardcore punk Emotional hardcore Rites of Spring, Embrace, The Promise Ring Personal emotional subjects Emo fashion
Goth Late 1970s UK post-punk and positive punk Gothic rock Bauhaus, The Sisters of Mercy, Siouxsie