The punk subculture emerged in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia in the mid-to-late-1970s, and has since undergone several developments. The punk subculture originated from a number of antecedents and influences. Various philosophical and artistic movements influenced and preceded to the punk movement. In particular, several strains of modern art anticipated and affected punk. Various writers, books, and literary movements were important to the formation of the punk aesthetic. Punk rock has a variety of musical origins in the rock and roll genre. Previous youth subcultures also had major influences on punk.
The earliest form of punk, retroactively named protopunk, arose in the north-eastern United States in the early-to-mid-1970s. The first ongoing music scene that was assigned the punk label appeared in New York City between 1974 and 1976. Around that same time, a punk scene developed in London. Soon after, Los Angeles became home to the third major punk scene. These three cities formed the backbone of the burgeoning movement, but there were also other scenes in cities such as Brisbane, and Boston.
Starting in 1977, the subculture diversified, and factions such as 2 tone and anarcho-punk came into their own. As the punk movement began to lose steam, post-punk, New Wave, and No Wave gained the media's attention. Sometime around the early 1980s, punk underwent a renaissance in the form of the hardcore punk subculture. Hardcore proved fertile in much the same way as the original punk subculture, producing several new groups. These subcultures stand alongside the older subcultures under the punk banner.
The underground punk movement in the United States in the 1980s produced scenes that either evolved from punk or claimed to apply its spirit and DIY ethics to a completely different music, securing punk's legacy in the alternative rock and indie scenes. The commercial success of alternative rock gave way to another style that the mainstream media dubbed pop punk. A new movement in America became visible in the early and mid-1990s, claiming to be a revival of punk.The Sex Pistols (die bei weitem bekannteste Punkband),
- The Clash (die musikalisch einflussreichste Punkband),
- The Damned (die erste Fun-Punk-Band),
- The Slits (eine der wenigen Frauen-Punkbands),
- The Stranglers (eine der wenigen Punkbands mit Keyboard) und
- Crass (ein radikal antikommerzielles und politisches Projekt).
Schon damals teilte sich die Punk-Bewegung in viele Richtungen wie Anarcho-Punk, Oi!/Streetpunk, Ska-Punk, Fun-Punk und Skatepunk. Parallel zum Entstehen des Punks entwickelte sich der ebenso musikalisch radikale Industrial mit Vorreitern wie Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire und SPK.
Subcultures within punk
The punk subculture is made up of a diverse assortment of subgroups that distinguish themselves from one another through different attitudes, music, and clothing styles. Some of these groups are antagonistic towards one another, and there is widespread disagreement within punk whether or not some are even part of the larger subculture. An individual punk may identify with several of these factions, or none in particular.
 Subcultures influenced by punk
Several subcultures started out closely related to the punk subculture but broke away, becoming distinct and separate cultures. Some of these groups have retained friendly and cooperative relations with punks, but others have developed a feeling of mutual animosity.
|Subculture||Origins||Music||Major bands||Ideology & Lyrics||Fashion|
|2 Tone||1970s UK punk, ska, rocksteady, reggae, pop||Typical punk instrumentation plus brass instruments and other wind instruments||The Specials, The Selecter, The Beat, Madness||Escapism (dancing), anti-racism, working class populism||Suits, Trilby hats, & other skinhead/rude boy/mod fashion|
|Emo||Late 1980s Washington, D.C. hardcore punk||Emotional hardcore||Rites of Spring, Embrace, The Promise Ring||Personal emotional subjects||Emo fashion|
|Goth||Late 1970s UK post-punk and positive punk||Gothic rock||Bauhaus, The Sisters of Mercy, Siouxsie|