Disputats: Lingua franca, prestisjespråk og forestilt fellesskap: Om
engelsk som akademisk språk i Norge.
(eo) Disertacio: Lingua franca, prestiĝlingvo kaj imagata komunumo: Pri
la angla kiel akademia lingvo.


ENHAVAS 40-PAĜAN RESUMON EN LA ANGLA (rig. pnr 331)

Laŭ mia juĝo ĝi tre interesas por iuj (politikemaj) esperantistoj.

TIAL:

1) ŝi citas rekte de Phillipson koncerne imperiismo multflanka kaj
novliberalismo fare de anglanoj (speciale usonanojn).

"US expansionism is no longer territorial [...]. Occupation is by
economic,
technological and material means, and is increasingly ensured through
mental and electronic control, through [...] the networks of political and
scholarly collaboration that uphold an exploitative economic structure
(Phillipson 2008:38)." pnr 329
...
Når bl.a. universitetene trekkes inn i markedsideologien, og
dette framstilles som universelt og nøytralt, viser det at
anglo-amerikanske tenkemåter er i ferd med å oppnå hegemoni i bourdieusk
forstand, mener Phillipson. Engelsk som et ”nøytralt” og ”globalt” språk
er del av dette hegemoniet." pnr 329

Phillipson, R. (1992): Linguistic Imperialism Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
Phillipson, R. (2004): “Review article. English in globalization: three
approaches.” Journal of
Language, Identity and Education 3/1, januar 2004, 73–84.
Phillipson, R. (2008): “The linguistic imperialism of neoliberal empire.”
I: Critical Inquiry in
Language Studies, 5/1, 2008, 1–43.
Phillipson, R. & T. Skutnabb-Kangas (1996): “Sociopolitical factors and
languages of scientific
communication.” I: Paper from the Language Policy Conference,
Roskilde, January 29, 1996.
ROLIG-papir 56, 33–42. Roskilde: Roskilde UniversitetsCenter,
Lingvistgruppen.

2) ŝi konsideras nur la anglan kiel ebleco por internacie kundividi
akademiaĵoj. Ŝi ne konsideras ekz. tradukadon de ĉiuj publikaĵoj en
pli ol unu lingvo (ĉi ekz. ekz. de la norvega al esperanto aŭ inverse).
Laŭ tio mi juĝas ke ŝia perspektivo de internaciaj interkomunikaĵoj
estas tempe mallonga (ekz. kiu scias ĉu iu povas legi la nuntempan (uson)anglan post
200 jarojn?).

"I prinsippet fins det tre ytterpunkter for språkbruk i et
universitetsmiljø: Det ene ytterpunktet representerer muligheten for å
bruke bare et nasjonalspråk, det andre ytterpunktet representerer
muligheten for en flerspråklig løsning, og det tredje ytterpunktet
representerer muligheten for å bruke stort sett bare engelsk. " pnr 315

3) ŝi konkludas pri la motivoj malantaŭ la uzo de la angla: uzo de la
angla temas pri kubliĝo (alligiĝo). Pli prezice la elekto de angla kiel
oficiala instrulingvo (en norvega universitato) temis pri kubliĝo al
internacia edukmerkatego, kaj samtempe ekhavi la eblecon oferti siajn
ĉefkompetencojn al pli granda publiko ol ene de Norvegujo kaj Skanujo kaj
eble kontribui al positiva evoluo ie alie en la mondo.

"Det har vist seg etter hvert som jeg har analysert materialet fra
kasusstudien at svært mye handler om å ”kople seg på” i en eller annen
forstand. En grunnleggende motivasjon for ledelsen ved kasusenheten for å
gjøre engelsk til offisielt undervisningsspråk var å kople seg
på et internasjonalt utdanningsmarked, samt å kunne tilby sin
spesialkompetanse og gi av sin kunnskap i et større område enn Norge eller
Skandinavia og slik kanskje bidra til en positiv
utvikling også andre steder i verden. Noen av studentene så for seg at de
senere skulle ut i et internasjonalt arbeidsmarked, enten ved å arbeide i
utlandet, eller ved å arbeide i internasjonalt orienterte bedrifter i
Norge. For de ansatte var det å skulle kople seg på et internasjonalt
fagmiljø en motivasjon for å skrive vitenskapelige publikasjoner på
engelsk."

Se vi trovas aliajn interesaĵojn en ĝi bv. prezenti ilin kun paĝnumeroj (pdf)
al mi en la komentoj.

PS: kontaktu min se vi volas ke mi traduku alineoj de la desertacio.

---------------------------------------------------------------

"11. Summary in English
11.1. Summary of the findings
The title of this thesis is “Lingua Franca, Prestige and Imagined Communities: On English as
an Academic Language in Norway. A Case Study in its Broader Context.” The study’s
primary objective has been to establish the main factors that influence the relationship
between the Norwegian and the English languages in the academic sector in Norway, and the
consequences of a possible change in this relationship.
Teaching through English has in recent years become more common in higher
education in Norway, as well as in most of Europe north of the Alps. English has also become
the chief language of scientific publication. Norwegian is more commonly used in related
genres such as textbooks and reports and in the dissemination of knowledge to the general
public.

A great number of factors take part in determining the relationship between English
and Norwegian in the academic sector. These consist of various aspects of globalisation,
international and national politics, university policies, internationalisation efforts and
ambitions to become “excellent”. Less tangible factors such as attitudes and the perceived
prestige of the two languages also play important roles. These various factors are explored
throughout the thesis.

Sub question 1: Who takes initiative and what incentives are there to use English, as
opposed to the national language, as a language of higher education and research
1a. on the international level (concerning Norway)?
1b.on the national level (in Norway)?
1c. at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim?
1d. at the departmental level of this institution?

Initiatives and incentives come both from “above” and from “below”. “English from above”
concerns political processes, signals and agreements, such as the Norwegian government’s
ambition to increase the number of courses taught through English in higher education. But it
is not just language politics that matter. Equally or perhaps more important are other types of
politics, such as international agreements concerning the opening of borders. The General
Agreement on Trade in Services introduces free trade with higher education, and the Bologna
agreement gives us free flow of students and lecturers through European universities and colleges.

The university ideal has changed from the university being an instrument for nation
building to taking on characteristics of international businesses. Universities now compete
against each other and are ranked on international ranking lists. In Norway, the Bologna
agreement has been implemented through a higher education reform called
“Kvalitetsreformen”, where internationalisation has been among the main focuses. As part of
these internationalisation efforts, however, there has been little reflection on language issues.
The Bologna agreement itself does not mention language. In Norway, however, it has been
taken as self-evident, without any further discussion, that in order to meet the Bologna goals
and increase the number of foreign students we have to offer a greater number of English-
medium courses. In most recent years, however, good initiatives have been taken by the
Norwegian Language Council, the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions
and by four out of the six Norwegian universities to discuss, develop and in some cases adopt
language policies. This entails reflection on language matters, previously lacking in the
discussion of internationalisation.

“English from below” is when the initiative to use English comes from employees on
the departmental level of the university sector, such as when researchers themselves wish to
publish their works in English, or departments wish to offer English-medium courses. In this
thesis, I have carried out a case study of one university department where such an initiative
was taken: The international MSc programme in Industrial Ecology at the Norwegian
University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. Here it was decided that all tuition on the
postgraduate level should be given through the medium of English. This decision was made
without any direct orders or instructions from above. The change of instruction language was
implemented in the autumn of 2005, and in the case study I observed classes and other course-
related work in one obligatory course during the first term. I also used questionnaires and
interviews with students and staff in order to explore the reasoning behind the decision, their
attitudes to English and Norwegian as academic languages and their experiences of how the
language switch has affected them individually in their work or studies..."