perrexo de la prima parto de la Affixoi de Linguna:

-'-il-<a> a proparoxytone adjectival suffix of rare use instead of "-a", "-est-<a>"
indicating a concern, some relation to
e.g. infántila, mercándila, mórbila
.
-íli-o (a two syllable proparoxytone suffix)
boat, vessel, ship:
papyrílio (papyrus boat), velílio (sailing-vessel, sailer)
.
-ill- indicating a (transitive) simple tool, sometimes also a remedy
{But note: "otul,-o" [pralex/primeval root] = tool}
.
-'-im-e indicating a (repeated) manner of doing something step by step or one by one or else one after the other:
e.g. stépime, detállime [(contra­hite el detálli- + '-ime], tásqime, púnctime
.
-imajj- [i'ma:3-]
forms name or surname of ani­mal by characteristic word root
E.g.: nocimajjo, flagellimajjo, utilimajjo, grimpimajjo
.
-ina (f) female being;
.
but look up the fundamental proper roots for ma­ny of the female persons:
"fémina, mejda, maica, crolén/crolena, achaita, dujta, pucell/-a, spus/a, qven/a, lel/a, bábushca, othin/a, cnegin/a, princess/a, hostess/a, putén/pu­tena, pastorell/a, qyría, jería, imperess/a, donja, gailach/a, senorita, servitriss/a, circa­trix/a, -eshl/a, -inx/a, snaca, ejca, nautiss/a, magata, therap­na, sobrietta, grauss/a, gyrla, hospit/a, begam/a, nonca, theá, milca, amazón/amazona, cassandra, nutrish/a", etc. (See the file of FEMININE.tmd)
.
-ind- -worthy, deserving of, deserv­ing to be ..-ed
.
-ing- holder (sheath, socket, stand) for one object only ,(usually at one end)
.
-ínia (f) (a proparoxitone suffix) denot­ing a mere geographical country or county name, independent from the eventual inhabitants there.
.
E.g.: Palaestínia {former region of the coastal Philist(ine)s}, Bosnínia, Pa­tagonínia, Maqedonínia
.
-inta, -anta,
-onta, -unta - participles of continuance, in active voice according to tenses
.
{But: -uva = participle of the complete perfect, active voice}
{And: -ura = participle of expected future, act. voice (inf.: -uri/-urejn)}
.
-intejn/-antejn/
-ontejn/-untejn - inf. of participles of conti­nuance, active voice
.
{But: -uvi, (-uvejn) = inf. perf. act.)}
.
-inx,-inxa (f) female person (when derived from adjective): fortinx,-a = a strong female person
.
-ior- comparative degree, alterna­tive of: "pli -"
.
-is- [iz] cover with; apply onto; pro­vide with; play a musical in­strument
(But here see also: plegi)
.
-iscs- /-isc- [ists]
to come to be, grow (on­ly of nouns); to experience sensation
.
e.g.: dajiscsas = it dawns;
luqidsas =it's getting light;
horrorisci = to shiver with horror
.
-ism- (religious) belief, doctrine, ideology, philosophical scheme
.
-íssim- (a proparoxytone suffix) super­lative degree, alternative to: "plej ..."
{extrem-rare useblas contrahite „-esm-“, exp. supresma}
.
-ist-o (male:) professional, specia­list; adherent of a doctrine
.
{But for females see: „-ejca“}
.
-itat,-itato (same as "-ec-/-ezz-"), extra­ordinary quality,
e.g.: inten­sivitat, feliczitat}
.
-ítim-a -- (irabla-vecturebla sur, tyga por):
a proparoxytone suffix: voyageable, maneuverable on, apt for
.
-itir/-atir/
-otir/-aturi/
-ituri/-utir - infinitives of the passive voice
.
-ítiss(-) (a proparoxytone suffix)
denoting inflammation, disease of .
But in nominative use without ending "-o", then paroxytone): laryngítiss etc.
.
-iv- capable to do/react/be such
.
-izza (f) (= -itezza (f)) (completed quality in passive voice, denoting the state after the matter being accomplished.
.
-nelca / -nelqi (nieras la praefixon „sen-“ , sed „-nelc-“ / „-nelq-“ sempre sole suffixe appliqendas) [Hung.: ... nélkül (= -telen/-tlan) por: {sen}]
suffix corresponding to the prefix „sen-“, for English „-less“, being/managing/acting without, (terribly) lacking
.
e.g.: maicanelca = motherless
gogonnelca = unsuspecting
.
-nja /-enja (f) forming short and pet name of a female
e.g.:
Sonja, Trenja, Vronja, Renja, Manja, Minja, Marenja, Rinja, Sinja, Florenja
(with long names the ending is „-enja" instead of „-inja", in order to avoid any confusing with names of geogra­phical regions {see -ínia} !)
.
-ó- suffix, forming words that shall express involvement, im­plication, entanglement, conveyance to, conducing, seducing, inviting
.
-od-a - relative to, in relation to, con­cerning, referring to, being related/connected to, often used instead of 'por-', 'pro-', or ‘pri-' or else suffix ‘-est-'
[cp. ancient Greek "-oodees"]
.
-ofil- - friend of special conduct or hobby, amicable, friendly to­ward
.
-ogen- technical/medical suffix mean­ing: generating, creating, causing. E.g. "cancerogena"
.
-oíd- [ò'id] denotes unprecise resemblance. E.g. ellipsoído, tabloído
.
-olog- scholar/scientist in ...
.
-ológi-a (f) science of
.
-oma because of a multitude of / by many/much ...
.
-on(al)-/ -on(ial)-
Insertion between two "i", and before „-al-“ and „-ell-“, espe­cially with long words:
(-onal- - insertagjo inter du "i" lexofine, praecipe cun longai lexoi)
E.g. "ra­cionaligi", "fraccionaligi", "autopsioni", edc. -
.
Preferable not with: "críi, apprécii, escíi, grácii, cámbii, copíi, conscíi, relíi, operíi, conveníi, sucíi (=maltranqvilli pro), but this use cannot be excluded.
.
-ops- looking like
.
-or- (mostly a pseudosuffix)
person of duty or skill, or some sklillful device (in words mostly stemming from a proto­language)
.
-óri-o (a proparoxytone suffix) col­lection of technical devices in one system, or of apparatusses /ar­rangements in one place
.
os- [o:z] denotes rich contents of, abun­dance of
.
(o)troop- [<o>tro:p] figured/formed that way, of such shape [Hell.]
figured like |in that mode, so of such contours
(figurita tiamoda, de tiai conturoi) .
.
-pruf- - -proof: firm against, with­standing; resisting; not leaking
(firma /resista contrau, contrastara al, diabroqimuna)
.
- -'-u-(a) a proparoxytone suffix applied instead of "-ita" when stressing the state or adjectival character of a verb in the passive per­fect participle form
(adjectivalo del participo perfectes, sen tia forma);
.
exp.: fixi -- fixita -- fíxua;
morti -- mortuva -- mórtua)
fíxua (fixita estanta, ne hálaca), fíxuastro (astro fixita);
mórtua, neqérua (mort­<ig>ita); - and the like
e.g.: mollyláxua
.
{Nota bene: This suffix "-u-" will by no means present the only explanation for some words in Linguna that already as Linguna r o o t s bear the ending "-ua", "-ui" etc., stemming from protolanguages.}
.
-uc- /-uq- [-k] suffix indicating castrated animal/person
.
-uj- denotes receptacle, container
{But: fruit tree is formed by: -ier-}
.
-uja <fem.> signs the name of a people's (ancient) land-settlement and a language speakers' territory (e.g. "Bavar­uja", "Saharuja")
.
{Learn: all names of countries, states, territories, regions, provinces, beaches, woods,
is­lands, moons, plains, towns, and counties, - and the nouns of country, county, homeland, beach, banks, island, hilly country, mountai­nous country, countryside, moon, town, city, wood, duchy, native country, plateau, tableland, high mountain region, mead, grounds, fields, depression/hollow, valley, landscape, re­gion, prairie, plain, territo­ry, foreign country / ~ countries, etc. themselves as
nouns are regarded as feminine (except for the words planet, desert, continent, because of being too mighty)
and therefore follow the feminine decli­nation
(a-,aes,-im,-an,-ae,-aom, ho '-ao;
-ai,-ais,-ins,-ain,-'aie,-'aiom, ho '-aio)
like the females.
.
E.g.: bassuja, país,-a, terra, región,regiona, pro­vinz,-a, comituja, ducuja, regjuja, fadamba, respública, ...
- -((But: regno, Estato, império, deserto, monto, continento, planedo, mondo, capitólio, território, terraeno - <all strong entities of administration, rule and power, or of summary, compre­hension are masculine>))-,
.
and:
subpaísa, pátria, haim,-a, terra forana, vallea, línia, terra incógnita, exarchuja, riva, plagja, borduja, pejsajja, grunduja, cauluja, terra virga, tábula, campuja, campaduja, vjéresha, Germanuja (comprising Germa­ny, Switzerland, Austria, Alsátia as German-speaking regions, whereas „Germánia“ is Germany alone), nébula, Rhejnuja (as a country along a river), lun,-a, wulda, selva, songjuja, Orientuja, Occidentuja, Suluja, suburba, Norduja, agraruja, altuja, montaruja, pucuja, wesda, íztoca, ínsul,-a, qejterra, paenínsula (apaenau-ínsula), urba, cíty,-a, herbuja, saala, praería, rura, cultivuja, planía, plattuja, sholuja, altoplanía, planía bassa, terra firma, wádia, edc.,
also those in figurative sense of ex­tension and livelihood/live­liness: vita, ánima, esperanza, synfónia, psycha, Língua, idiom,-a, flor,-a, antha, rosa, natura, fauna, obra, matéria, extranuja, hora, nación, iscuela, cultura, stella, vista, família, ecclésia, academía, scola, fjal,-a, fantásia, futura, escienza, épocha, scala, pátria, culpa, utópia, spégula, ironía, galela, vallé,vallea, songjuja, riviera, ópera, causa, fortuna, prensa, gazetta, fabeluja, música, régula, diantha, heliantha,
anemona, leucanthetta, érica, azalé,azalea, dália, tulipa, ástera, temenujja, lília, fama, liga, colónia, szjela, oicumén,oicumena, zona,
stéppua, paluda, marcza, castelluja, bién,biena,
benca (=sandbank) , érega, hammada, regserira, intrapaísa, djebela, megapolissa, fóresta, taun,-a, strata, autostrada, fábrica, cassa, allé,allea, prosa, praduja, parca, lejma, sloupa, aqva, fériai, vjétera, persón,persona, humanité,humanitea, sfaera, -ología, atmosfaera, jonosfaera, historia, glória, guerra, czaussé, czaussea, fábula, fabela, saga, cala, unión, uniona, basílica, poesía, régula, litteratur,-a, musa, vista, cámpeng,-a, tepeca, maresh,-a, thora, pezca, varsha, poluja, vastuja, romanda, jura, reguja, clima, pashtuja, idemlingvuja, bandera, haessa, corona, máchina, -ografía, hazienda, caljaluja, jaguaruja, miséria,
misericórdia, lingvuja, Linguna, idiomuja, houmronduja, arrieruja, himaterra, inframonta, domaena, frontiera, envirón, extránia, episcopuja, nieterra, crosstabla, crossroccuja, externuja, arrierregión, metropol,-a, etenduja, Islándia,
Nederlándia, Nova-Selándia, Greunlándia, Swíssia, Swédia, Rossesa, Germanesa, Italesa, Ásia, Atlantida, Europa, Antillidínia, América, Ant­árctica, Arctissa, Polynésia, Austrália, Vesperida; etc.
.
-uld- carying much or great, having done great/important; victorious, rich har­vest of
.
-ul- person as derived from an ad­jective (mostly male)
.
-úlli-<o> (a proparoxytone suffix, always masculine) denot­ing a very little person or an extremely small matter, or a thoroughly tiny object respectively (almost a dou­ble diminutive)
E.g.: pa­nercúllio
.
-um- suffix forming a related word idea, subject to definition and context
.
-und- stressing the origin, the coming from and provenance
.
e.g.: regjunda (= venanta/venuva del regjo),
Asiunda (= el devén Asiana)
.
-unt- (act.),
-ut- (pass.) - unreal, only dreamt of participation\action or suffering respectively, this being a „revalis“ participle (-unta/-uta) or gerund (-unte/-ute)
.
-uos- points to a disease, sickness (because) of,
E.g.: "trombuoso"
.
-ur- suffix indicating a forthcoming development, an absolutely expectable me­nace in the (near) future, or else any other almost per­emptory happening that will arrive soon. Also forming the expected future.
(denotas minazzon nepre praedictendan, exspecteblan en futura próxima, generelle: futuran exspecteblan, vd. ancau -antura, -itura)
.
E.g.: rompur,-o; fendur,-o
.
-utabl- (from: -ut- + -abl-) denotes a forthcoming readiness that is (only) dreamt, unreal, or an ability under mere unreal conditions (por pretezza occasura non-reala mentau, sole revata, sub nénio ol condiczoi irrealai)
.
-uva participle of the complete per­fect, active voice
(denotas perfecton completan)
.
-uvym, -uvas,
-uvams,-uvaz - forms of the complete perfect, active voice
.
-uvejn infinitive of the complete per­fect, active voice
.
-y- [y] a vowel set in between two words that are combined,
where neither "-a-", "-o-", "-e-", "-i-", nor their omit­tence would do to present the real relation between the roots
(vocal intertala cze lexofaciado, qvie ália intervocal ne tygas; estante cun ioma senso
ablativa por la prima parto del lexo synmettita)
.
exp.: piedysoldato (infanteriano), vésperymangjo (dzen), dajymangjo (obedo), mollyláxua, - edc.
.
{But note: -'-yus, -'-yums, -'-yuz are the proparoxytone endings of the eventuality mood or better named the po­tential}
.
-yn- causative (with already transi­tive verbs), make someone do something. [Hell.]
.
E.g.: mortigyni, servyni, facyni;
laessigyni <the latter meaning: venigi\commovi qve iu minorigas\laessigas = to make\to cause\ to arrange for \to induce a person to diminish s.th.
.
{But: laessigi <igi laess da> = to diminish, to decrease, to lessen, in a transitive sense>}
.
-yr- (mangjagjo/ dzibo de/el ..., dzibo praeparita el expemple: bovyro, porqyro, cervyro, pezyro, pisnyro, fabyro, risyro, edc. [comparu prarádicon Indo-Europésean: szlyri- {devori}])
.
-'-yus, -'-yums,
-'-yuz - proparoxytone endings of the eventuality mood or better named the po­tential
(in German called: Konjunktiv, in Spanish: subjuntivo)
.
Nachtrag:
cess- (Präfix) kennzeichnet das Aufhören, Ablassen, Beenden, Nichtmehrnutzen, Liegenlassen / prefix denoting stop, desisting, leaving off, ending, letting lie, no making further use of
.
Exp.:
cessagro Brachacker, Brache / field lying fallow
cessagruja Brachland / fields lying fallow, fallow grounds, fallow land
cessclopodi (: esti carencsanta en, mancái pri) -
es an etw. fehlen lassen / to be wanting in, to come short in, to spare (the) pains
.
cessnigra heller geworden, aufgehellt / brightened, lightened, lit up, getting brighter
.iso- (Präfix) gleich im Sinne von: gleiche Lage, gleiche Geltung/Stellung, ebenso hoch bzw. gleich stark usw. wie, gleichmachend / (prefix) equal -- in the meaning of same position, equal rank or validity or level, as high or strong (etc.) as; levelling, equalizing
.
ísoa gleichmähssig, gleich verteilt, gleichgestellt, angepasst /
uniform, equal in level, rank, or position, equally distributed, adapted
[Hell.: isos/eisos <gleich an Zahl, Maß, Stärke, Größe, Beschaffenheit, Wert, Rang, Geltung usw.>]
.
#
Furthermore, in Linguna, all prepositions as well as, in
special, the determinants (see there!) can be used to form compounds.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
.
Short prepositions in use in Linguna are the following:
.
al, versau, epí, ysqe, de, ab, el, anau /ana-, catau /cata-, parau /para-, praeter, tra, via, intra, intro, extra/exter, extro, im, seqvum, per, meth, propter, pro, antí, prae, piera, post, crom, isclu, dysau, salvau, sen, dra, tras, malgrau,
cun /con-, hamá, congré, dal, po, garau, por, qvau, antílocau, amfi, syn, diá, dre, spreau /sprié-, ob, objase, piedau, arribau, ol, coram, qvasi;
en, sur, contrau /contra-, sub, arrier, antau /ante-, super, infra, trans, migau, apud, cze, cis, czircau, inter.
In detail:
al (= to, for)
versau (= towards, in direction to)
versus (= versus (in a process against)
epí (= in relation to, as regards, at, to)
ysqe (= up to, untill, till)
de (= from, of, <.passive.> by)
ab (= away from, off)
el ( = out of, from/of)
anau (= up, upwards) / ana-
catau (= down, downwards, to the buttom) / cata-
parau (= sidewards of, {passing} by, sideways, abeam, askance, askew, aside, far apart
from) / para-
.
praeter (= passing by, beyond, alongside, on the other side of, past, by, up to and by)
tra (= through/thru, across)
via (= by way of, via)
intra (= in the interior, inside, indoors, within)
intro (= into, in-doors, inside, inwards)
extra, or: exter (= outside, out of, beside, outwards, beyond, more than) / extra-
extro (= [“elen“] in direction outward of, out of and away, from within right away outward)
.
im (= alongside with, in conformity with, compliantly to, conformably to, according to, in the degree of, as to, along)
seqvum (= according to)
per (= by, by means of)
meth = (of <.a material of.>, made of)
propter (= because of, on account of, for the sake of, by reason of, on behalf of, by reason of)
.
pro (= because of, out of, for, from, owing to, through <.stressing the motive/fear of, strong intention, etc..>)
.
antí (= contrary to, (resolutely) against, in contradiction to, versus)
antí de (= instead of)
prae (= before, prior to, ... ago)
piera (= made for, meant for)
post (= after <.in time.>, later than)
crom (= beside{s}, including, apart from, destinct from, independent of, in addition to, moreover, to boot)
.
isclu ['i:zklu:] except, but, not counting, save, excluding)
dysau (= in a distance of, standing away from, refraining from, desisting from, keeping one’s distance from, ‘to say nothing of’, ‘let alone’, (this) removing, detained from, taken away from, alienated from, enticed away from)
.
salvau (= save, except, irrespective of, without prejudice to, notwithstanding, with reservation as to, subject to)
.
sen (= without)
dra (= by <.as author.> )
tras (= aslant across, right across, crossing diagonally, athwart, trespassing athwart or slanting)
.
malgrau (= despite, in spite of, nevertheless)
cun (= with) / con-
hamá = (simultaneously with, at the same time as)
congré = (in conjunction with, in harmony with, aided by, in accordance with)
dal (= as to, at, from the viewpoint of, when dealing with, concerning)
po (= per, apiece, at the rate of, a number of ... at a time, at ... each)
garau (= almost, about, roughly, round about, around, approximately)
por (= for)
qvau (= in favour of, prefering)
antílocau (in place of, instead of, in default of)
amfi (= to/from both sides of, taking/taken from both sides of, gripping/seizing both sides of s.th.)
.
syn (= together (with), all together along with, in concert, jointly, in company unitedly)
diá (= infolge von / owing to, in consequence of, as a result of)
dre (= sailing close-hauled; hard a-starboard; close to|by the wind, against the wind)
spreau (= in front of, in view of, frightened before, with fears against or in anguish before, before a person’s very eyes, worrying very much in the presence of, defending oneself . against| in view of, confronting;
warding off, parrying: in opposition, face to face with, being confronted with, vis-à-vis) / sprié-
.
ob(je), obje, objase {+ dative} (= thanks to, owing to)
ob (= somehow opposite, encountering, towards, opposing, coming to meet, running to meet, meeting halfway, brought against, met on the way, lying opposite to)
.
piedau (= at the foot of {e.g. a mountain})
arribau (= farther above)
ol (= ‘than’ :after forming the comparative;
and: as ‘but’ in expressions like: not ... but (ne ... ol);
and: in conjuntions underlining a degree earlier, later etc. than,
.e.g.: prae ol = before ...;
post ol = after ..., when ...)
.
coram (= facing, in sight of, publicly before, openly in front of, being personally present at)
.
qvasi (= as, as if, as though, like, as apparently)
.
en (= in, inside, within (with nominative); into (with accusative, unless „intro“ is applied)
contrau (= against, {in opposition} to.(position with nominative, and direction with accusative) / contra-
.
.
sur (= on, upon, touching, added to, covering (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
sub (= under, underneath, beneath (touching or not), in the shape of. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
arrier (= behind, back, at the back, at the rear, abaft, aft, astern of. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
antau (= locally before, in front of, in priority to, in the presence/in fear of ..., (hiding) from. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative)) / ante-
.
super (= above, super-, over (without touching), beyond, more than. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
infra (= [‘malsuper’] underneath, without touching deep under, below; meanwhile. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
trans (= over/across, on(to) the other/farther side, beyond (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
migau (= among(st), amid(st). (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
apud (=at, at the side of, beside, by, close to, near (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
cze (= at, with coincidence of, at|to a definite place or point, by, on, to, over, from, in, in the case of, with, -upon, -under. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
cis (= {“maltrans“} on this side of (opposite of ‘trans’); (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))
.
czircau (= around, round, surroundingly, (round) about. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative)) / circum-
.
inter (= between (position in place or time), betwixt (two), among, closely related to. (position with nominative, and direction with accusative))

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