_A_F_F_I_X_O_I_
Affixes in Linguna
LINGUNA - ONE LANGUAGE
Copyright by / Copía dereczo cze: Hans Dieter W. Goeres, M'gladbach
1991/1994
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LINGUNA tends to unite all peoples of the Earth by means of one easy but highly cultural and neutral language of Romance and Ancient Greek characteristics, demanding constant exchange of political and scientific views and above all a new sense of community and universal terrestrian solidarity.
In use like word forming radicals are the affixes, similar to many other languages, some of which are already known through our predecessor Esperanto.
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(A.) Prefixes:
-
ab- off, away from, getting out
.
á-/áb- miss-, incorrectly, in error, wrongly, far from
.
e.g.: ábuso; ábago (crimenago), áplaesi
.
amáss- en masse, mass, common, in masses
.
anqí- very close to, as near as that you can touch it, tangibly near
.
antí- = anti-, versus, contrary to, counter-
.
archi- ['arxi] arch-/archi-, highest chief, supreme
.
argyro- silver -, silverlike, silvery
.
ari- very, strongly, utmost
.
atro- dark shade of (color)
.
aván- = (avan-) foremost
.
bargu- must not be done, don’t dare, do not allow & is not allowed, never be done (under no circumstances)! [Sumerian: bara-]
.
be- intimately at/with, depending from/with, clung to, leaning to, tenaciously attached to, bent to, very closely connect­ed with, siding with
.
E.g.:
bepicugnesdo [gnesdo pendanta/trovidsanta resp. teuj-flanca las picues]
bemonta qindugo
qindugo vivanta en pueblo de la montodeclivo au gnesdanta cze la montes roccmuro
beurba dependa, resp. alligita al/de la urba
.
bi- = bi-, twice
.
cess- prefix denoting an interrupting or ceasing act, or such aspect or else the stop respectively, an incomplete, interrupted action.
.
E.g.: cessagr fallow land
.
chrys(o)- prefix denoting the golden aspect [Hell.]
exp.: chrysofasán golden pheasant
.
con- /suicon- (also the suffixes: -ulda/-ala):
showing, having
((antane /in Old-Esperanto: "-hava"))
.
dé- away
.
des- (dess-) (des-), (in-), removing/clearing of, taking away; pull off, strip
.
di- = double-
.
dis(s)- dis-, asunder, apart; separate(-d); disturbing; breaking down
.
dys- [dy:z] far from, amiss, hampered
.
ef- prefix [originating from Hell.: "epi-/efh-"] for "laissez-faire", letting be, passive­ly, indulgingly leaving it that way, let happen, let occur, let grow, suffering it, desisting from. .
E.g.: efpas­si (let pass); efputridsi (leave rotting, let decay)
.
eu- [ø] fine, well-, agreeable, plea­sant, eu-
.
exu-,
exuserva ex-.., former, one-time(adj.), off duty
.
exuigi to discharge, to dismiss, to get rid of, to turn out
exuidsi to leave office, to resign, to retire (willing- or unwillingly)
.
feu- fie! for shame!, morally bad, worthy of indignation
.
ga- prefix originating from the Go­thic: finding s.o./ s.th., meeting s.o., getting, to comment/judge/find, and find oneself together with
.
E.g.: gavulni obteni vulnon;
gamissili rencontri missilon, missilom vulnidsi;
gajuveli trovi juvelon;
ga-signi prijudji signon trovitan
.
gam- ..-in-law (ne: bo-)
.
hali- prefix [Hell.] for: sea, of the sea, sea salt
haliaheto white-tailed eagle
haliqhoiro grey seal, seal baby
.
hypér- abnormally much, overdoing
.
hypo- ['hy:pò] too slow, too little, less than normal, underfed
.
mal- denotes the direct contrary (not applicable with words of the basic thesaurus; there are proper roots available)
.
mini- = miniature, on a (very) small scale
.
neo- new, neo-
.
non- = non-, (in-), (un-), expressing but the negative of, not the op­posite
.
nush- [nùS] should be done, but being unrealizable
(praefix: desirate ejsus faciende; qvippe faciuntebr sed stantum irreale resp. non-complereble) [Sumeresae]
.
o- [prarádico] prefix denoting the figurative or a pictorial paraphrasing, subject to definition or con­text. [Tibetesae]
.
E.g.: oglamydonegjo (chlamydo­monas nivalis, an alga);
omultopatycha (complicated; ceremonious, fussy);
ocana (not resisting, weak); odajái (bring to light; exhi­bit, display);
omerzedi (show favor in deco­rating, handing over, fitting out, vesting);
otondra (huge, colossal, enor­mous, terrific);
otrancza (very flat and thin);
olaganso (bight, small shal­low bay);
oloba (shaky; slovenly, rag­ged, flabby);
oneminletha (f) - (forgetmenot)
.
ob- encounter, running across, confront, bout
.
omb- re- (changing), trans-, ex-:
ombscribi to rewrite,
ombcufi to turn upside down, to tilt over
.
ómni- comprising all kinds of, for /to all, above all
.
para(u)- mis-, sideways, incorrectly
.
per- completely, from beginning to end, peremptory, (per-)
.
plagi- {’plagi] prefix denoting: transverse, cross(-), denoting transversal position, broad, athwart, at right angles to (G.: quer-} [Hell.]
.
poly- indicating about several, ma­ny, manyfold; too many
.
E.g.:"polyathlona"; "polyre­go", "polylinguezza" (f)
.
pra- (pre-), original, primitive, primeval, ancestor, primary, primordial
.
pross- going or running ahead, to the front, forward, onward, get­ting on
.
pseudo- [-ø-] pseudo-, false(ly), professed­(ly), seemingly but not real­ly, sham
.
puán- whole of, Pan- [Hell.: pant-]
.
Puanáfrica,
Puanamérica,
Puáneuropa,
Puánfoiníqia (the latter means the union of all remainders of the so-called „Indio“ tribes in all América)
.
{But n.b.: pan,-o = bread}
.
re- = (re-), return, back
{except for radicals from protolan­guages with other meanings, see the LINGUNA dictionaries}
.
ri- = (re-), again, anew {except for radicals from protolan­guages with other meanings,
see the LINGUNA dictionaries}
.
retro- backward(s), retro-
.
rody- denotes both sexes together
(exp.: rodydormi = cune dormi cun partnero álisexa)
.
semi- half-, semi-
.
sen- without, lacking; -less; free from
{but see also suffix „-nelca“ / „-nelqi“ = (estante sen ..., agante sen ..., líbere de) being or acting without, lacking, -less}
.
sin- self- (reflexive) <accusative of "si">
.
to- [tò] = he- or she- (stressing either possibility, also often with animals)
.
.
Furthermore, in Linguna, all prepositions as well as, in special,
the determinants (see there!) can be used to form compounds.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
.
(B) Suffixes (totally without hyphen)
.
-à = This is but an ending, with grave accent sign, applied only in cases of doubt, stressing an adjective character of the word when being derived from a feminine gender one. Preferably, however, we use a proper suffix here,
e.g. -ala,
-aea, -ella, -iala, -iella, -erna, -esta, -ana, -aena, -oda, -oma, -´-ila, -´-ica, -´-ea or any other suitable one.
.
-á- denotes presenting, show, ap­pealing, demonstrative character.
(Verbal forms contracted in the present tense): odajái <.bring to light, to disclose, make manifest.>
{day = dajo; o- = fig. meaning only} :
::
odajám, odajás, odajáms, odajáz;
odajaanta, odajaata [-a:nta/- a:ta]
.
{n.b.: aa, oo, uh, eh, ij are but long vowels}
.
-ab- ustensil or device of common use
.
-abl- active ability, ready to, able
.
-ace- plant family name; forms also superior conceptions sometimes
.
-acío- (-ício-, -cío)
pseudosuffix [Lat.origin]
(only "-ício" being proparoxytone)
.
-acz- exterior deterrioration; insult
.
-ad- repetition; lasting/continuous
.
-ador-a (f) apparatus, machine-like contri­vance
(feminine in Linguna)
.
-ae-a = forming an adjective of a femi­nine name and such noun parti­cularly when, seldom enough, there are both possibilities of gender by the same gramma­tical root
as e.g. with:
secretário (m), secretária (f); ángjelo (m), ángjela (f);
bebéo (m), bebéa (f);
magistro (m), magistra (f);
generalo (m), generala (f);
apprentizo (m), apprentiza (f),
doctoro (m), doctora (f)> -
: Then 'magistraea' would mean: "belonging to, concerning, or particular to a\the female
Master or female schoolmaster", respectively.
,
{N.b.: „of the (he-)doctor“ means: doctórea, or: (les) doctores, or: doctorana;
„of the (she-)doctor“ means: doctoraea, or: (las) doctoraes }
,
Please note: Almost all females in Linguna, contrary to Espe­ranto, have their proper word root, a small remainder of them are distinguished by special feminine suffixes ( -ina, -inx)
-aen-<a> suffix similar to „-an-<a>“, „-anagj-“, where the re­lation of „-anitato / anezza“ (f) is ra­ther nebulous, vague. Also used to express the result of craftsmen’ artworks, e.g. lignagjaeno; etc.-
,
E.g. cissalpaena, metropoli­taena, edc. (edí céterai)
,
-agj- [a:dj-] matter, thing, cause, busi­ness; substance; meal
,
{But note: former "ag°o" =} aeto [Lat.: aetas; Hisp.: edad]}
,
-air- (applied instead of -(en)capta, -(al)licza, -altira, -elbuda): [from Greek: hairéjn] capturing, catching, drawing (attention),
enticing, snatching, (a)rousing the interest, fascinating and exciting
.
-al- stressing only the character­izing feature or attributive character of a root as noun:
e.g.: "acidala" stante dispara de: "ácida"
.
-(a)ment- arising of a collective body of items
.
-an- member, inhabitant, citizen; adherence, solidarity, having bonds to
.
-anj- expressing, in the verb itself, any reciprocal action of one an­other, among oneselves
[stemming from the Zulu language: -'-an-]
.
{But please note also the alternative use of: "allelau", "allelim", "alleloth", "migallelau", etc., instead of the above suffix}
.
-ant-, -int-,
-ont-, -unt- participles of continuance in the active according to tenses and mood
.
-ante/-inte/-uve-
/-onte/-anture
/inture/-unte All are gerunds depending of the tense ((and mood, see -unte))
.
-anth-a (f) [ant-h -a:] flower name
.
-anz-a (f) [anszh-] (from: "-antezza (f)")
.
-ar- = collective noun (:montaro, frataro, infantaro, libraro, shelfaro, dilaro, muraro)
.
{But: a group of, a band/troup of, a lot of, a crowd/rally, an assembly, a gathering - as proper words - are to be trans­lated by the following:
szaor,-o [så:r] = troop, band, herd, flock staecco = stack, lot
hómil,-o = multitude, group, rally, crowd, gathering, assembly, abundance
- and should no longer be expressed by the suffix "aro" as a proper word, namely because of its own other meaning as much as "many are", besides „szon“ for "they are".: Aro multai ce tie = so many are here}
.
-arcs- / -arc- [-rts-] (with verbs only): intense action/process, amplification
.
-ard- ardent representitive of a cause; wildly acting
.
-ári-o /-ári-a (m/f) (a proparoxytone suffix)
bearer of / having a function or com­mission, male/female
.
-asa (f) = contracted from "-atezza" (f) (essence of being done right now)
.
-at-, -it-, -ot-,
-itur-/-atur-,
-ut- All these are participles in the passive voice according to tenses and mood
.
-ata/-ita, -osa,
-ulda/-ala, (also the prefixes: con-/suicon-):
showing, having
((antane /in Old-Esperanto: "-hava"))
.
-ativ- capable of being done/executed/carried out/undertaken and affected/afflicted/suffered
.
-átu-o (proparoxytone suff.) institu­tion, status, protecting body, acting office
.
-(i)bundo somebody bound, compelled or noted to do so or to make this, abundant in (over)doing
.
-czjo or:-ijjo forming short and pet name of ..., (with males)
.
-é- denotes kind of being, increas­ing the intensity of a verb, to be found in a state like ..., being pending, hovering etc.
.
-'-ea (proparoxytone suffix) instead of mere "-a" (for adjective),
e.g.: When an adjective near a noun of feminine gender must be clearly distinguished as the adjective there, or generally when de­riving an adjective from a normal noun, one may, if need is, apply "-'-ea" (demanding an accent on the an­tepenultima).
.
And: -'-ea will be used only in the case of uncertain use of mere short „-a“ (which is the normal adjective ending), in order to pre­vent any confusion. There are a number of other suffixes also applicable to derive an adjective from a feminine word, .
as e.g., beside -‘-ea:
-(on)ala, -erna, -iala, -(on)ella, -iella, -oda, -esta, -oma, -esca, -écea, -aea, -(a)menta, -ana, -estra, -aena, -osa, -ulda, -(ón)ila /
-´-ila, -´-ica, -árià, -ada, -opsa, -anta, -ema, -uma (See the definitions in this list).
.
{Besides, in speaking and writ­ing, a feminine noun, can be followed by an adjective; so the adjective in general stands behind the noun.
(In the case of mere underlining the character of a noun, an adjective can get placed before the noun, as is customary in Spanish, too.)
.
Furthermore,
please note: Instead of attributive use of the adjectival "-a", sometimes, one had better applied the genitive by "-es" (or „-aes“ respectively), and "-ois" (or „-ais“ respectively) of the attributing noun, .
e.g. "patres ger­dzo" parallel to "gerdzo pa­tra";
"gerdzois urba" parallel to "urba gerdz(ar)a" (public gardens town, horticultural town).
.
-ead- squash/drink of fruit, juice, (without alcohol)
.
-ebl- possible to be done, can be made
.
-ed- animal family name; all sorts of
.
-eg- denotes enlargement, increase (with nouns and adjectives); huge, immense
.
-ej- place of action, occurrence, situa­tion, dwelling
.
-ejca ['ejka:] (female:) practising a profes­sion, specialist
.
-ejr- maker, not always necessarily profes­sional, but well doing
.
-ell- (opposite of "feu-“, „-acz-") very good, noble, fine, pleasant, agreeable
.
-em- denotes inclination, prone­ness, liking, preference
.-enc-/-enq- [-k] tremendously deep / profound / abrupt, abyss, definitive ob­stacle
.
-enc- /-enz- (n)
[ents/enszh] (developped from): -ent-ezza (f)/-ent-écea- [en’tets-]
(meaning): quality of an abstract entity
.
-end- (gerundivum) denotes necessi­ty, something (over)due to be done
.
-eng- pseudosuffix for words of Eng­lish origin ending in "-ing" (exp.: míteng,-o; clareng,-o)
.
-énni-o denoting a long period, quite a lot of years: e.g. millénio, qvindeqénnio, centénnio, deqénnio
.
-ens- [enz] active chemical or technical matter/substance performing a transitive action suggest­able by the root
.
e.g.: agen­so, solvenso, revelacenso, co­lorenso, frigorenso, blanqen­so, purenso, callaqenso, vel­denso, moderenso.
.
{n.b.: callaqi [pralexo] = déigi, abigi/fuerigi, elimini, liqvi­dumi /to do away with, to remove, to abolish, to liquidate, to eliminate}
.
-ent- denotes the superior or ab­stract or else metaphorical meaning, subject to definition or context.
.
E.g.: "pezenti" (feel happy being in one's elem­ent, like fish in water), {la pez = fish};
"noczento" (black mark, misdeed);
praesidento (president),
ardenta (ardent {fig.},
apperento (appearance)
.
-'-er-(a) (suffix with proparoxytone accent) denotes the matter/material of something, made of ---; of which something is thoroughly wrought or affected [Hell.: -(e)rós].
.
E.g.: lígnera (wooden), córnera (horny/of horn), ládera (of sheet metal/tinny)
.
-erc-/-erq- [erk] denotes small component of, particle of, (constituent) part
.
E.g.: panerco (crumb), szabl­erco (grain of sand, etc.). (ne: "-ero")
.
-erí-o (former: -arejo) denoting place of orderly kept items/things of a common denominator
.
E.g.: librerío (library); poqerío (board for glasses); cuperío (cupboard); scaenerío (scenery); lexerío (science of words, philology, thesaurus); artillerío
.
-ern- (expres­ses:) belonging to, accessory, pertaining to, appendage
.
-esa (f) [ez] denotes language of a people or a tribe
.
-esc-/-esq- [-k] similar to, almost like s.o., in the manner of
.
-eshl(-a) (f) female: conductor, director, head; manageress, leader
.
-esío {-esía (adj.)}
(like: -ecidso/a, -idsío/a, -idsagjo /-a, -idsezzagjo/-a) [Hell.: -esis/-osis],
a proparoxytone suffix denoting an arising attitude or the forthcoming of a
character­istical feature or else the fact or seizability of some development /growth
.
E.g.: montesío .... change of landscape getting mountainous; formation of mountain-chains
stormesío .... formation of a storm
maladesío .... development of a disease
spectesío .... a developing spectacle of sights; (artistic) performance
disrompesío .... disruption
alvoqesío .... vocation/call
dispartesío .... long good-bye, slowly driving asunder, diverging
formesío .... formation
.
-est- being that way, being there, being in ~, being on there, being itself
.
E.g.: abritesti, confusesti, fratesti, linguesta
.
-estr- (male) denoting chief, head of, (head)master, conductor, manager, (originating from the word "mestro"); and also in adjectival use,
.
e.g.: pied­estra, terrestra, extraterr­estra
.
-etr- denotes infliction, belabouring, marking with
.
-ett- a diminutive, little, slightly
.
{But stronger diminutive: -úlli-<o> as diminutive of nouns}
.
-etud- denotes strong steadiness, hardness and perseverance | holding out, ~hood [Lat.]
.
-eut-o [øt] (instead of: "-i-isto") speci­alist in a science or practise
(ending with „-ía“ (f), or „-ío“ {Engl.-y}),
.
e.g.: therapío <therapeutics> -- therapeuto <therapeutist>;
farmacío <pharmacy> -- farmazzeuto <pharmaceutic, pharmacologist>
apología (f) <apology> -- apologeuto
.
-ezz-/-ec- [-ts] denotes character, quality;
but see also: -itat-
.
-(í)fer- [do qviel: -ífera au -fera]
(a proparoxytone suffix) bearer, bearing, producing, having, containing, -ferous
.
-i- /-ae-[æ] vowel "i" or (of fem.) "ae" to be inserted between two roots when forming a compound word instead of genitive or else, in some suitable cases, to substitute the "-o" of the first part of the compound (where not meant as an object of the second part).
.
-'-i-o (a proparoxytone suffix)
one time act/deed, short state/act, impuls (contrary to repeated or continuous doing or state).
.
E.g.: martéllio =><= (unlike) martellado;
sónio =><= sonado;
fúmio =><= fumado;
plúvio =><= pluvado;
trumpétio =><= trumpe­tado;
agéntio =><= agentado
.
-'-i-a (f) a proparoxytone suffix, denot­ing State, nation, country, people.
.
E.g.: Británnia, Germánia, Nederlándia, Róssia
.
-ío denotes a phaenomen, special appea­rance, sollemn act, important deed
.
-ial- -ful, complete, comprising all, total
.
Noun:
-ic-/-iq- [-k] marks some technics, engineer­ing, also a technique (when accent falls on it).
.
{But: "technics" itself is femi­nine:
téchnica (f), the ad­jective of which is "technicala", or simply „techna“} [Hell.: hee téchnee = the art]
.
Adjective:
-'-ica (forming proparoxytone adjectives of above, instead of „-ico“ paroxytone,
now „-'-ica“ proparoxytone, and of nouns in „-ia“, often also now -'-ica, expressing an adjective of a mere general speciality
.
E.g.: adjectives: (paidagóogica)/pagógica, propaedéutica, histórica, geográfica, ...
.
-icz- [it$] rare suffix distinctly de­noting the male
.
<cp. also: "-czj-" of masculine proper names>
.
-id- offspring, young, son, child
.
-idl- (iterative verbal notion, denot­ing frequency of occurrence of act or movement and process)
.
E.g.: nasidli (nasalize), [espritidli -»»] espridli (to quip wisecracks), maladidli (be sickly), áliturnidli/ drefidli (turn to and fro, or turn back and forth), repashidli (walk up'n'down/to and fro), basculidli (rock, wobble; waddle), colawonombridli (to count the cars passing by)
.
{But: radagyra instead of Old-Esperanto „idla",
and: please note: wheel = ruedo; but:
free/relieved/glad = rada <of Slavic origin>]
.
-ids- [idj-] getting intransitive, become, get, turn
.
-iell- something alike, somehow that kind
.
E.g.: tordiella, arbiell, ron­diell
.
-ier- tree or shrub bearing fruit or berries
.
-if- make something (to be working
.
E.g.:
mondifi (create a world of);
verifi (control the truth /efficiency of); specifa (speci­fic);
terrorifi (change into a terror);
acidifi (build an acid)
.
-ig- makes transitive (where not yet).
Please note: under the pas­sive voice or passively under­stood suffixes (as: -ill-, -end-, - ebl-, -ativ-, -ind- mostly) the suffix "-ig-" is pleonastic and therefore omitted.
.
Further­more, with compound verbs, form­ed from adjective notions and a preposition (:ellargi), the suffix „-ig-“ is occasionally un­necessary when no misunderstand­ing would arise.
.
-ijjo / -ijja (m/f)
forming the respectful short name, or expressing the reve­rence toward somebody (he/she):
.
patrijjo (papa), Gandhijjo, etc.
.
-'-il-<a> a proparoxytone adjectival suffix of rare use instead
of "-a", "-est-<a>" indicating a concern, some relation to

(Estos continuata)